Monsoon Diseases – Mumbaikars Should Take Care About It

Though the arrival of monsoon brings cheers but it also brings the diseases that is unavoidable. Overflowing garbage, stagnant water and unhygienic food all lead to ac condition that the perfect environment for a variety of diseases to flourish. There is marked increase in the number of diseases such as diarrhea, hepatitis, typhoid etc. Wading through dirty water, following heavy rains causes various skin diseases and leptospirosis.

The sudden drop in temperature and high humidity provides the ideal situation for occurrence\ of respiratory and viral diseases. The stagnant water facilitate the breeding of mosquitoes which are responsible for high incidence of malaria and dengue fever during the monsoon.

Info on some Monsoon diseases

Gastroenteritis is the most common problem encoutered during the monsoon. It occurs due to faecal contamination of the drinking water due to flooding and improper storage. When the complaints start within four to six hour of food consumption it is food poisoning. Those occurring within twenty four to forty eight hours are generally viral while those occurring later are usually bacterial. The most common are the viral gastroenteritis due to the Rota virus.

Diarrhoea, vomitting, pain in abdomen, fever, body ache, headache and dehydration.

The cornerstone of treatment for all age group remains oral rehydration. Only the bacterial infections require treatment with strong antibiotics. Oral rehydration is most important in children. The oral rehydration solution should typically contain one table spoon of salt and four tablespoons of sugar dissolved in one litre of water. In children less than two years the ORS should be given every one to two minutes, while older children shold be given frequent sips, spaced out evenly. Feeding as per schedule should be continued, specially if the child is breatfed, unless there is associated vomiting.
Malaria is a disease of the blood that is caused by the Plasmodium parasite, which is transmitted from person to person by a particular type of mosquito.

Flu like symptoms are observed like high fever,chills, muscle pain, diarrhea come and go in cycles as the disease progresses. Malaria particularly the falciparum type, can turn very serious due to lowering of platelets in the blood, kidney, liver and brain. Sometimes as malaria is being treated the person can develop very low sugar in the blood or respiratory failure. Therefore many times malaria is treated empirically. Drug resistance in malaria is increasing threfore inadequate or incomplete treatment should be avoided at all cost.

Treatment Malaria is treated by chloro-quine an other antimalarial drugs.
A bacterial disease that is usually transmitted by contamination of rain water which has present in it traces of rat and cattle urine. The survival of leptospires in the environment is favoured by warm, moist conditions and neutral or slightly alkaline pH. In such conditions it may survive for as much as four weeks.

High fever, severe headache, chills and vomiting and may include jaundice, red eyes, kidney damage, meningitis and respiratory diseases can develop if inadequately treated.

Muscle tenderness along with muscle pain is an important feature of this illness. In the one of the study conducted following severed flooding in Mumbai, it was noticed very high incidence of kidney failure in cases with leptosprirosis. Early use of dialysis results in better survival in these patients.

Antibiotics such as doxycycline or penicillin should be given early in the course of the disease.
It is another disease caused by the spread of Aedes aegypti mosquito.

The initial disease may be similar to viral flu but a repeat exposure can lead to immune reaction causing bleeding or toxic shock. The uinteraction between temperature and rainfall or variation in daily micro climates may be important determinants of dengue transmission.

An early detection and a proper medication are considered positive factors and help in lowering fatality rate of the disease. See a doctor, take the prescribed medication which are mostly pain relievers, rest and drink maximum fluids. If the situation worsens in the first 24 hours, do not delay going to a hospital for checking against criticalities.

Sponge the patient with water at room temperature using a wet, squeezed out towel for about 20 minutes at a time. This will help to lower the high temperature, not to use ice water for this purpose.
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection. Contaminated water and food during monsoon is the main reason for higher incidence of typhoid fever.

Persistently high fever, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia, dry cough, weight loss are the common presentation.

Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics. A person will usually get well within two three days with prompt antibiotic treatment. The fever may respond partially to anti pyretic drugs like paracetamol. Drug resistance of typhoid bacteria is very common now. Even bacteria sensitive to the antibiotic used may respond late.
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